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- Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements;
Anastasia A. Malygina Assistant Professor. Andrey Y. Pavlov Professor.
…ΓΙΑΤΙ ΤΟ ΚΑΛΟ ΒΙΒΛΙΟ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΣΜΟΣ
Try the Course for Free. Explore our Catalog Join for free and get personalized recommendations, updates and offers. Get Started. Preparatory work for implementation of the CWC in the Macao Special Administrative Region, including implementation legislation, has registered steady progress. The Chinese government attaches importance to the implementation of the CWC in the Taiwan region of China and will continue to seek proper solution to the issue in accordance with the One China principle.
Currently, relevant work of disposing the chemical weapons abandoned by Japan has moved from the phase of theoretical research and experiment to that of construction and implementation. The two sides have reached agreement on issues like the destruction technologies and location of destruction facility. Specific environmental standards have, by and large, been worked out.
The preparatory work for the excavation and recovery of the chemical weapons abandoned by Japan and construction of the destruction facility is currently under way as planned. China also devotes itself to the promotion of economic and technological development in the chemical field, as well as trade and other international cooperation among States Parties for peaceful purposes.
China has been vigorously calling for attention and efforts by the international community to prevent an arms race in and the weaponization of outer space. In June , China, Russia, Belarus, Indonesia, Syria, Vietnam and Zimbabwe submitted to the CD a joint working paper entitled "Possible Elements for a Future International Agreement on the Prevention of Deployment of Weapons in Outer Space, the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects," putting forward specific proposals on the major elements for the future international legal instrument, which has gained wide support from many countries.
China supports the important role played by the UN and other multilateral institutions in addressing missile and related issues. China advocates the establishment of a fair and non-discriminatory multilateral mechanism universally accepted by the international community in the field of missile non-proliferation. China has participated in its work constructively. Although China has not joined the HCOC, it has kept in touch with all parties including the subscribing states to the HCOC, making joint efforts to prevent the proliferation of ballistic missiles. China earnestly fulfills its obligation under the CCW and has been dedicated to enhancing its effectiveness and universality.
China has always been deeply concerned about civilian casualties caused by inappropriate use of landmines, in particular anti-personnel landmines APL. China supports appropriate and reasonable restrictions on the use of landmines, so as to prevent their indiscriminate use against civilians.
3.8 'Tailoring a Nuclear Arms Control Treaty'
Since its accession to the Amended Protocol on Landmines, China has strictly implemented the provisions of the Protocol. Public awareness and education campaigns concerning the implementation of the Protocol have been launched. A series of new military standards as required by the Protocol have been adopted. A comprehensive survey of old or obsolete landmines has been conducted, and a phased program of modification or destruction of such landmines is implemented.
To date, hundreds of thousands of old or obsolete landmines have been destroyed. China has observed in good faith its commitment declared in to a moratorium on export of APL that do not meet the requirements of the Protocol. In the s, China conducted two large-scale de-mining operations in the border areas, thus basically eliminating landmine problems within its borders.
China fully understands and sympathizes with other countries' sufferings caused by landmines and has been actively engaged in international de-mining assistance and cooperation. Since , China has participated in de-mining operations in about 10 countries in Asia and Africa through various forms of assistance, including financial donations, providing de-mining equipment and technical training. Though China is not a party to the Ottawa Convention, it endorses the humanitarian purposes and objectives of the Convention and has been constantly strengthening exchanges and communication with its States Parties.
China also attaches importance to the issue of anti-vehicle landmines AVL. China is in favor of a multi-faceted approach to addressing the issue, taking into full account the specific situation and actual capacities of different countries. China played a constructive role in the negotiation and conclusion of the Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War and is in favor of its early entry into force.
Currently, China is actively preparing for the ratification of this Protocol. China supports multilateral efforts to combat the illicit trade in SALW and has actively participated in the relevant work within the UN framework. China played a constructive role in the negotiation of the Firearms Protocol and signed the Protocol in December China has unswervingly pursued a national defense policy that is defensive in nature.
Under the premise of ensuring national security interests, China has always kept the quantity and size of its armed forces at the minimum level necessary for maintaining national security and has for many times taken the initiative to adopt unilateral disarmament. Attaching high importance to the security, stability and development of the Asia-Pacific region, China has adhered to the principle of "building friendship and partnership with neighboring countries" and the policy of "fostering an amicable, peaceful and prosperous neighborhood," endeavored to seek effective approaches for confidence-building measures CBMs , actively participated in the construction of regional security mechanism and devoted itself to establishing an Asia-Pacific security framework featuring dialogue rather than confrontation.
Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements
China made the decision to downsize its military personnel by one million in By , the number of armed forces had been cut down to 3. Since , China's armed forces have undergone a series of adjustments and their size has continued to shrink. China decided in to once again downsize its military by , within three years, reducing its military size to the level of 2. In , China decided to further cut down the number by , within two years and to reduce its military size to the level of 2. The wide scope and magnitude of China's unilateral disarmament in such a relatively short period of time are rarely seen in the history of international arms control and disarmament.
This has fully demonstrated the firm belief of the Chinese government and people on the arms control and disarmament cause as well as their sincere aspiration for peace and development. China has always put emphasis on the control of its defense expenditure scale. The defense spending is appropriately allocated under the guideline of coordinated development of national defense and economy.
Since the adoption of the reform and opening-up policies, the Chinese government has kept its defense expenditure under strict control in order to concentrate its strength on economic development. From to , the percentages of China's defense expenditure to its financial expenditure of the same period followed a downward curve on the whole. It was China's overall defense expenditure remains at a relatively low level in the world.
This is not only reflected in the absolute amount of defense expenditure, but also in the percentages to the GDP and financial expenditure. In , China's defense expenditure registered China's defense budget for is Note: Statistics in the chart are sourced from the national defense reports, financial reports or other government reports released by the said countries. In and , the average dollar-yuan exchange rate was 8. Based on the economic development and revenue growth, China has moderately increased its defense expenditure in recent years.
However, the increase was relatively small. For most years since the s, the growth rate of China's defense expenditure has been lower than that of the state financial expenditure. The increased part of the defense expenditure has primarily been used for the following purposes: 1.
Increase of the salaries and allowances of the military personnel to ensure the improvement of their living standards in step with the socio-economic development; 2. Further improvement of the social insurance system for servicemen, including the establishment of systems like casualty insurance, medical insurance for ex-servicemen, housing subsidy, basic life guarantee for accompanying spouses of servicemen and social insurance subsidy; 3.
Support for the structural and organizational reform of the military and proper resettlement for the , servicemen recently discharged from active service; 4.
Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements – Εκδόσεις Ποιότητα
Increased investment in the development of high-caliber talents in the military, and refined incentive mechanism for talented people to ensure the achievement of the PLA's Strategic Project for Talented People; and 5. Moderate increase of equipment expenses to improve the PLA's defensive combating capability under the conditions of modern technology, particularly high technology.
The Chinese government has always adhered to the principle of strict control, strict management and strict supervision of defense expenditure and has established a full-fledged management and legal system. The Chinese government, pursuant to the National Defense Law of the People's Republic of China, ensures the necessary funds for national defense, incorporates the entire expenditure in the state budget and exercises management over it in accordance with the Budget Law of the People's Republic of China.
Examined and approved by the National People's Congress, China's defense budget is open and transparent.
China attaches great importance to and actively promotes the cooperation on regional disarmament and CBMs. It has reached a series of agreements and consensus with relevant neighboring countries, thus making contributions to the improvement of regional security environment and enhancement of common development. These agreements reflect the new security concept initiated by China and embody the principles and spirit that are of universal significance to security dialogue and cooperation in Asia-Pacific, including mutual and equal security; seeking security through dialogue and cooperation; equal consultation and mutually beneficial cooperation; being not against a third state; no threat or harm to the security and stability of other countries; insisting on national defense policy of defensive nature; friendly exchanges in the military field, etc.
These agreements opened the cooperation process of the "Shanghai Five" and laid down a solid foundation for the establishment and development of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization SCO. For more than four years since its establishment, SCO has formed a full-fledged institutional system and legal basis, smoothly launched the cooperation in the security, economic and other fields and is growing into a significant mechanism promoting regional security, stability and development. In April , the two countries signed the Protocol on Modalities for the Implementation of Confidence-Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control in the China-India Border Areas, which is an agreement on the concrete implementing approaches of relevant clauses in the Agreement signed in The signing and implementation of these agreements have played important and positive roles in maintaining peace and tranquility in the China-India border areas, promoting the friendly relations between the two countries and facilitating the peaceful resolution of the border issue.
The parties concerned undertook to resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means, refrain from taking any actions that would complicate or escalate disputes, promote mutual trust through dialogues between defense officials and voluntary notification of joint military exercise, and actively carry out cooperation in the fields of marine environmental protection, marine scientific research, safety of navigation and communication at sea, search and rescue operation and combating transnational crimes.
China supports gradual expansion of defense officials' participation in the ARF. Preventing the proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery is the common task of the international community. China firmly opposes the proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery and has actively participated in international non-proliferation process. China has joined all international treaties and relevant organizations in the field of non-proliferation, and has maintained active exchanges and cooperation with other countries and relevant multinational export control mechanisms.
China has actively participated in the diplomatic efforts of the international community to address relevant non-proliferation issues, working to promote resolution of such issues by peaceful means through dialogues and cooperation. Since joining the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons NPT in , China has faithfully honored all its obligations and dedicated itself to maintaining and enhancing the universality, effectiveness and authority of the NPT.
China remains committed to promoting the three goals of the NPT, namely, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, nuclear disarmament and peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
China signed with the IAEA the Protocol Additional to the IAEA Safeguards Agreement in , and in early formally completed the domestic legal procedures necessary for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol, thus becoming the first nuclear-weapon state to complete the relevant procedures. In November , the Chinese government announced that it would, on a continuing basis, notify the IAEA of China's export to or import from non-nuclear-weapon states of any nuclear material of over one effective kilogram.
In July , China formally undertook that it would voluntarily notify IAEA of all its import and export of nuclear material as well as its export of nuclear equipment and related non-nuclear material. In May , China pledged not to provide assistance, including nuclear export and personnel and technical exchanges and cooperation, to nuclear facilities of non-nuclear-weapon states not under the IAEA safeguards.
4840.ru/components/spionage-programm/xixy-whatsapp-spy.php At present, acceptance of the IAEA full-scope safeguards by importing countries has been set by China as the precondition for nuclear export.